Human Resource Management entails the management of the human resources required by an organization and being certain that every human resource acquired is maintained for purposes of promoting the organization’s vision, strategy and objectives. In other words, HRM focuses on securing, maintaining, and utilizing an effective work force, which organizations require for both their short and long term survival in the market. In order for HRM to achieve its organizational objectives, managers should perform a number of basic functions which represent what is often referred to as the management process.
Employees are major assets of any organization. The active role they play towards a company’s success cannot be underestimated. As a result, equipping these unique assets through effective training becomes imperative in order to maximize the job performance. Also position them to take on the challenges of the today’s competitive business climate. Although extensive research has been conducted in the area of Human Research Management, the same cannot be said on employee training especially as it concerns developing countries.
Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organisations and to the experiences of people in work. Training has implications for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organisations employing people need to train and develop their staff. Most organisations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such investment can take the form of employing specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and development entails obtaining and maintaining space and equipment. It also means that operational personnel employed in the organisation’s main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development and delivery.
Most of the benefits derived from training are easily attained when training is planned. This means that the organization, trainers and trainees are prepared for the training well in advance. According to Kenney & Reid (1986) planned training is the deliberate intervention aimed at achieving the learning necessary for improved job performance. Planned training according to Kenney and Reid consists of the following steps:
- Identify and define training needs.
- Define the learning required in terms of what skills and knowledge have to be learnt and what attitudes need to be changed.
- Define the objectives of the training.
- Plan training programs to meet the needs and objectives by using right combination for training techniques and locations.
- Decide who provides the training Evaluate training.
- Amend and extend training as necessary.